Thursday, August 27, 2020
Examine the job that legislatures have played in the advancement of the Australian arrangement of work relations since 1980 - Essay Example Subsequently, a sound work relations framework should make a great domain that is perfect for accomplishing most extreme financial effectiveness, inspiration, efficiency, representative turn of events, and improving worker faithfulness (Lewis, et al., 2003, p. 7). There are three fundamental gatherings that make up the work relations frameworks: businesses, representatives and the legislature. Businesses have certain rights that are given by their state work laws. The principle manager right is the capacity to recruit and fire workers. They additionally reserve an option to move, close or go into coordinated effort with their organization of decision. In addition, businesses reserve the privilege to present new advancements inside the work place. Rights practiced by the business may somewhat influence the workers unfavorably (Gardner, 1997, p. 6). Representatives consistently target getting the best terms and states of work from their bosses. This procedure includes imparting their i nsights with the administration and furthermore airing their complaints. Representatives additionally use worker's organizations to battle for the option to participate in dynamic at their work environment. Laborers associations effectively present worries of laborers to the administration, and they are because of laborers joining against their bosses (Gardner, 1997, p. 7). State and focal government are especially pivotal in impacting and managing work relations through standards, laws, reminders, and issuance of grants. Government incorporates council courts, outsiders and work establishment inside the administration (Gardner, 1997, p. 9). The three principle parties in the business framework have their own delegate bodies, which take a shot at sake of the whole party. Bosses are spoken to by businesses affiliations, representatives in terms of professional career associations while the administration is spoken to by the courts and councils, for example, Fair Work Australia (Forsy th and Stewart 2009, p. 4). The extent of work relations is incredibly wide, and there are five primary issues secured under the business relations scope. These issues incorporate aggregate dealing, systems for settling business debates, standing requests, contribution of laborers in dynamic procedure, and uncalled for work rehearses (Rose, 2008, p. 11). Bosses ought to be in the bleeding edge in guaranteeing that there is a solid and sound connection among them and their workers. These phenomenal connections must be accomplished through business relations programs that are indispensable in the improvement of a spurred, skillful, and faithful group of workers. This group must be accomplished through a very much organized business relations program that centers around representative preparing, worker reviews, representative prize and acknowledgment, and representative examination. Additionally, the program should concentrate on legitimate compromise component and employing of most ap propriate specialists (Lewis, et al., 2003, p. 27). Work relations frameworks from different nations around the globe work in various styles, yet the principle point is to keep up a solid connection between all the gatherings in question. Governments have contributed tremendously in the production of perfect workplaces for the residents. The Australian government is one such
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Question: Examine about theBusiness Communicationfor Social Media Trends in Australian Workplace. Answer: Presentation The internet based life work is constantly developing in an exceptional manner. With this comes its effect in all phases of the work environments in Australia. Internet based life is acknowledged during enrollment to the time that the representative is terminated(Davis, et al., 2016). Also, representatives that neglect to stay aware of the advancements of online networking will end up on an inappropriate side of the law or hard working attitudes. This report talks about the negative effects of internet based life in the Australian working environment by looking and changed regions of business. The report will likewise talk about a portion of the means that businesses can take to guarantee that representatives can consent to the hard working attitudes and the law and still appreciate the utilization of web based life. Web based life Trends in Australian Workplace As per a review directed by Matthew Kelly, (2012), 48% of Australian managers report negative effect of web-based social networking with regards to working environment efficiency. The review additionally was led by the Kelly administration which is a worldwide workforce arrangement supplier. The study likewise found that inside and out the world, 59 percent of individuals blend proficient and individual associations in with online networking which in the end cause issues at the working environment. Likewise in Australia, despite the fact that internet based life keeps on picking up foot in the work environment, just 18 percent of representatives would permit individual utilization of web based life in the work environment, this is a direct result of the problematic idea of social media(Matthew Kelly, 2012). This shows how internet based life use has nearly become a qualification for representatives, be that as it may, most would cease from the utilization when they comprehend the ind ividual and expert effects it can have on them adversely. As to age gatherings, age Y was on the rundown contending that web based life utilize is satisfactory for individual utilize even busy working (18%), this was rather than 17% of age X and 11% of Baby boomers age. It was likewise just 21% who felt that online life could be adequate, when used to impart insights about work and different colleagues(Lucas, 2012). Of these respondents, six percent revealed being requested to quit utilizing online networking in the working environment, while 21 percent felt that web based life assumed a significant job in the organization(Erikson, 2009). Be that as it may, all stated, the spread of web based life keeps on developing in Australian work environment and has adversely influenced in the accompanying areas(Erikson, 2009): Internet based life and Recruitment Davis, et al. 92016), contends that internet based life keeps on adjusting the enlistment procedure in Australia. By the utilization of site, for example, LinkedIn, where representatives gain admittance to an abundance of business openings. Internet based life has kept on spanning scouts to up-and-comers and potential workers to open opportunities(Hargie, 2011)(Johannesen, et al., 2008). As much as this would appear to be acceptable, it has totally adjusted the verifying procedure since spotters and bosses will utilize the online life profile to decide if the competitor is appropriate for the assignment. A few spotters utilized internet based life destinations to screen potential workers. At this, a few businesses expected contender to become friends with outsiders via web-based networking media webpage like Facebook to find out about the candidates(Eunson, 2012). This is a break of the Privacy Act and can prompt tricky lead and a penetrate of the Australian Consumer Law(Dissel, 2014). Furthermore, such activities by managers additionally lead to the break of expert set of principles and code of morals. Social has additionally prompted instances of separation of candidates since potential boss may not be in a situation to exhibit data that was sourced from the web based life website to rate representative execution during interviews(Dissel, 2014). Different issues that play in this, is race and sexual inclinations, gives that shouldn't be determinants of worker capability. This additionally invites unapproved utilization of private data by representatives. As per Mackenzie Wallace (2011), businesses should look for composed assent from the competitor and access private data with their power. There is additionally need to keep a point by point record of the data they look for during the enrollment process(Hay, et al., 2006). Be that as it may, internet based life stays to be an unsafe undertaking in the work environment particularly with regards to sexual orientation, age and race separation. Online networking and Recruitment At the point when times to enrollment of workers, web based life use is likewise answered to have negative proficient notoriety. This is on the grounds that it influences the profitability of representatives, control, and lead at work. There are poor correspondence and bending of messages and provocation revealed by the administration and representatives. By and large, a business will be considered answerable for poor or injurious remarks of partners or individual representatives at working environment. This is on the grounds that internet based life locales have altogether harmed notoriety of individual workers when associates post remarks about their bosses or them(Eunson, 2012). In Australia, when a worker utilizes internet based life outside office and during available time or on the organization's PC, it despite everything has negative effect on the grounds of sexual, racial and position badgering and harassing. Australian courts have, now and again held managers obligated for the offenses done by their representatives via web-based networking media, in any event, when it was done outside working hours. This is particularly clear when the direct is identified with work and individual associates or other adversary organizations in the industry(Wood, 2010). It hence gets significant for businesses to think of an internet based life strategy which will set out desires, commitments, limits and conditions for the utilization of online life stages. It is significant for representatives to be cautioned about penetrate of work environment approach on the utilization of web based life destinations, particularly on zones contacting individual workers or the company(Spry Floyd, 2013). As indicated by Nohria (2009), it was discovered the 98.9% of representatives in a review directed in the nation would visit internet based life locales at the workplace. This was enormous since workers should utilize available time to perform errands doled out to them. Notwithstanding, online life destinations would consistently be a methods for interruption from work(Turner, et al., 2011). This was likewise brought about by the blares and internet based life alarms that are gotten consistently once the PC is associated with the webpage. Nohria (2009), likewise found that more that 60.8% of study members announced that they would frequently check their online life webpage while at work. Moreover, as representatives keep on concentrating more vitality on reacting to online life refreshes, they will lessen their pace of efficiency which prompts loss of cash and time for the organization. Be that as it may, a few representatives have contended that piece of the test that accompanies th e uncommon utilization of online life locales in the work environment would be a methods for correspondence during work. Some accept that internet based life can be utilized decidedly to adjust work information and output(Erikson, 2009). Web based life and Employee Termination The Australian courts keep on documenting instances of uncalled for excusal claims that are achieved by end identified with the utilization of online life stages by representatives. For instance in Dover-Ray v Real Insurance Pty Ltd (2010), it was accounted for that the representative neglected to demonstrate that her end was done in an uncalled for way. That it was done because of negative remarks the representative posted about her boss during work, it is accounted for that the worker and would not evacuate those remarks on the internet based life when was mentioned to do so(Dissel, 2014). There have additionally been situations where representatives are ended from work because of abundance utilization of internet based life locales during working hours. This requires the requirement for managers to send up clear limits for work hours and the utilization of web based life destinations. A portion of these norms are additionally affirmed by Fair work in 2011 where a representative wa s restored in the wake of being ended because of disdainful remarks about his director on Facebook page(Davis, et al., 2016). In such manner, reasonable work took a gander at the way that the business didn't have internet based life strategy at the working environment. Channels to Curb Negative utilization of Social Media at Workplace The principal channel for controling the inordinate utilization of online life should be possible during direction of workers. This is when workers are acquainted with the association techniques and arrangements. In such manner, they will be acquainted with the association culture. Strategies will likewise be there to direct the utilization of internet based life during working hours. They ought to have the option to disclose to workers the punishment online life use can support if found(Mackenzie Wallace, 2011). Supervisors need to likewise keep it clear for representatives during the introduction of association desires, this is on the grounds that workers will consistently look to progress nicely, in any case, will be required to know bearings of what is anticipated from them. Moreover, representatives should be acquainted with the possibility of value at working environment and way that it can profit them. At this, businesses need to consistently demand equivalent equalization and treatment during working hours. Here administrators need to set aside effort to disclose to new representatives on the significance of high work execution and end benefits. The business in this manner needs to furnish workers with scenes that can help realize worries of occupation value like mentorship, representative thoughts, lines of correspondence to bosses and human asset contact(Dissel, 2014). The other road to control negative effects of web-based social networking at work environment will be during acknowledgment programs. These projects can be a central point to demonstrate to representatives the consequences of the work information and adherence to work arrangement. Such projects will include compensating workers who reliably center around taking care of their obligations rather than continually refreshing their
Friday, August 21, 2020
People have consistently considered what drives them to settle on the decisions the make. One of the speculations individuals have concocted is that personal responsibility principally propels humankind. This hypothesis is safeguarded in the activities of Luba and her admirer in Angels of Bergen-Belsen, the choices made by Ilsa Hermann and Hans Hubermann in The Book Thief, and the battles with death in Night. We will compose a custom paper test on Personal responsibility Motivates or on the other hand any comparative subject just for you Request Now In Angel of Bergen-Belsen, Luba, a Polish Jewish lady, loses her child as she is brought detainee into an inhumane imprisonment in Bergen-Belsen where she spares the lives of forty-eight deserted youngsters in the camps with the expectation that somebody is thinking about her child as she thinks about them. She deals with the youngsters since she misses her child, Isaac, who was detracted from her at the hour of the choice procedure during the passage to the camp. To compensate for the misfortune, she satisfies her protective senses by taking care of and consoling the kids who were relinquished. The youngsters additionally spur her to live in light of the fact that they are reliant on her and cause her to feel committed to continue living for them. On the off chance that Luba kicks the bucket, they will be less inclined to make due in the hardships of the camps. They cause her to feel needed and required. With this her she can answer her inclination to live and can confront the cruel circumstances introduced to her. Her longing to live lets her adjust to unforgiving conditions introduced to her so with the incident of losing her child, she lets the new kids she finds supplant her child. Her admirer, a German official accountable for her military quarters, be that as it may, couldn't pick up her fondness like the youngsters. He puts forth a valiant effort to attempt to catch her heart by bringing her endowments like wood, which Jews were not permitted to have. It appears as though he is attempting to help the lady he adores get what she needs, however the genuine thought process in it is that he is attempting to win her heart. Despite the fact that he does really need to support Luba, he needs to fulfill his own longing and personal responsibility for her adoration more. In The Book Thief, Ilsa Hermann doesn't report Liesel to the experts for taking a book from a campfire during HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s birthday in Molching on the grounds that she is charmed by her. She does that not on the grounds that she thinks about LieselÃ¢â¬â¢s future, but since she has taken an enthusiasm to Liesel and needs to become more acquainted with her. To draw nearer to Liesel, she welcomes her into her library and offers her book with her. She attempts to keep Liesel close on the grounds that LieselÃ¢â¬â¢s provocative conduct occupies her from her downturn from her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s passing. She fundamentally needs Liesel around in light of the fact that Liesel can draw away the discouraging musings Ilsa has. Then again, Hans Hubermann helps conceal Max Vandenburg from being caught by the Nazis in light of the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"he had Erik Vandenburg to thankÃ¢â¬ (Zusak 176) for sparing his life during the First World War. He offers ErikÃ¢â¬â¢s spouse to call him at whatever point she needs assistance as remuneration. He feels committed to do this since he would feel regretful in the event that he didn't do anything as a byproduct of the man that spared his life. When MaxÃ¢â¬â¢s call for help comes, Hans needs to satisfy his guarantee to the Vandenburg family with the goal that he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t feel any blame for being the sole overcomer of the fight. So as to satisfy his feeling of equity, he consents to conceal Max in his home. He wouldn't like to bear the weight of realizing that he permitted his saviorÃ¢â¬â¢s child to kick the bucket whenever he had a chance of sparing him or possibly expanding his odds of endurance. He additionally needs to be consistent with himself and do what he accepts is the proper activity in light of the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"A Jew once spared his life and he was unable to overlook thatÃ¢â¬ (Zusak 180). Moreover, in Night, Elie and his dad battle to keep each alive in light of the fact that they give each other motivation to keep living on the planet. Elie puts forth a valiant effort to convince his dad to continue living, and he discloses to himself that he Ã¢â¬Å"[has] no option to let [himself] dieÃ¢â¬ in light of the fact that he Ã¢â¬Å"is his [fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s] sole supportÃ¢â¬ (Wiesel 87). The two of them would prefer not to be left to battle for themselves in the work camps and to need to confront the cruelty of the world themselves. Their reliance for one another is indicated when the Ã¢â¬Å"father and child regularly walk together clasping hands in the camps, apprehensive that they will be isolated. They request a similar work assignments, rest in a similar structure, share nourishment, and sing Hasidic tunes togetherÃ¢â¬ (Wiesel 29). Elie looks towards his dad for direction, and his dad looks towards Elie for quality. They keep each other alive for their own self advantage so they will have somebody to incline toward for help. In spite of ElieÃ¢â¬â¢s cozy relationship with his dad, that wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the case for all dads and children. As the Jews were being shipped to an alternate camp, German laborers would remove Ã¢â¬Å"a bit of bread from [their] pack and [throw] it into a wagonÃ¢â¬ (Wiesel 100). The men inside the wagon battle like creatures for a couple of scraps. One elderly person figures out how to get a piece. His child sees and assaults his own dad for the bread. He is roused to murder his own dad for it for his craving to endure and live on. He isn't keen on the prosperity, yet just of his own. He will do whatever is vital for endurance. Blessed messenger of Bergen-Belsen, The Lunch Date, The Book Thief, and Night all show a similar attribute of personal responsibility being the fundamental driver for rousing individuals to settle on the choices they make. Despite the fact that their activities will have a decent impact, their goals behind them are really for their own personal circumstances and advantages. The most effective method to refer to Self Interest Motivates, Papers
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Power of the Mother and Daughter Relationship Amy TanÃ¢â¬â¢s Joy Luck Club In the novel, The Joy Luck Club, the author, Amy Tan, intricately weaves together the roles and experiences of Chinese mothers with their American born daughters. During a time of war, the mothers flee from China to America, leaving behind a past filled with secrets that unravel as their daughters mature. While sharing their difficulties, these mothers must be able to teach Chinese beliefs and customs to their daughters in a way that relates to American society. However, this is difficult because the daughters seek to identify themselves with their own American culture. A lack of understanding and knowledge amongst these societies exists between the mothers andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦I [am] pure. I [have] genuine thoughts inside that no one [can] see, that no one [can] ever take away from me. I [am] like the wind, (Tan 53). This makes her invisible, strong, and assertive. As demonstrated throughout the novel, the strongest wind cannot be seen, (Tan 89). She had escaped without leaving a trace behind her. As the daughters grow, they portray certain characteristics similar to their mothers. Once Waverly learns how to play chess and competes against former champions, she uses her wind, which she inherited from her mother, to win all the games. She states: Ã¢â¬ ¦I would clasp my hands under my chinÃ¢â¬ ¦ in the delicate manner my mother had shown me for posing for the press. I wouldÃ¢â¬ ¦twirl my chosen piece in midair as if undecided, and then firmly plant it in its new threatening place, with a triumphant smile [on my face], (Tan 100). Here Waverly uses her strong and invisible wind to outsmart her opponents. Although she does not realize it now, Waverly has inherited her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristic of being an invisible, yet influential woman. Because the daughters do not understand what qualities they have inherited, they have become distant from their mothers. Trying to teach their daughters to strive for excellence only pushes them away. Suyuan Woo, another mother in the novel, and Lindo unceasingly compete amongst each other to determine whose daughter exhibits the most talent. In a conversation between these mothers, Lindo boasts:Show MoreRelatedAmy Tan: A Brief Biography757 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAmy Tan is an American Chinese writer most notably known for her critically acclaimed novel The Joy Luck Club, amongst many others. Amy Ruth Tan was born on February 19, 1952, in Oakland California to John and Daisy Tan. Both of AmyÃ¢â¬â¢s parents were Chinese immigrants who fled from China to escape hardships. AmyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, Daisy, divorced her abusive husband and left behind three daughters before immigrating to the United States and marrying AmyÃ¢â¬â¢s father, John. The marriage produced three children,Read MoreT he Joy Luck Club By Amy Tan1192 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswomen has drastically changed throughout the ages. (CIS) The Joy Luck Club by Amy Tan portrays life in America and in China in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s for women. (GS1) When stories are true, there is more power behind them. (GS2) Novels need accuracy for the book to have feeling. (GS3) A rave-worthy novel needs truth to really draw the reader in. (thesis) Author Amy Tan accurately portrays life for Chinese women in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s and it enhances the power of the novel because the stories have true roots, the accuracyRead More Improving Mother/Daughter Relationships in Amy TanÃ¢â¬â¢s Joy Luck Club1216 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesImproving Mother/Daughter Relationships in Amy TanÃ¢â¬â¢s Joy Luck Club One day everything is going great, in fact things could not be better and then you say something and your friend turns to you and says Ã¢â¬Å"oh my god, you sounded just like your motherÃ¢â¬ .Ã That is when you freak out and think to yourself it is true I am turning into my mother.Ã This is every daughters worst nightmare come true.Ã When a young girl is growing up her mother always says and does things that the girl vows she will neverRead MoreTheme Of Sexism In The Joy Luck Club779 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In her 1989 novel, The Joy Luck Club, Amy Tan hones into the narratives of four Chinese American immigrant families living in San Francisco. The novel is structured into four distinct, anecdotal sections: two dedicated to mothers and two dedicated to daughters. TanÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to structure allows the interlocking stories between mother and daughter to place emphasis on the issue of sexism. The purpose of TanÃ¢â¬â¢s novel is to highlight that, even though American and Chinese societies drastically differRead MoreAnalysis Of Amy Tans The Joy Luck Club1369 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA Perspective of the American Dream The Joy Luck Club Was written by 1989 by Amy Tan, a first generation American born in 1952 to immigrant parents. Tan was raised by her mother, who had left kids back in China, and a father, who was a Baptist minister. She grew up in California and attended high school in Switzerland. At the age of 15 her brother and father died of a brain tumor. Tan perceives the American dream in the way that an Asian immigrant would, which would be to pass down what we know soRead MoreThe Struggles Faced in the Color Purple and the Joy Luck Club1856 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Struggles Faced in The Color Purple and The Joy Luck Club A common bond of struggle links the novels The Color Purple by Alice Walker and The Joy Luck Club by Amy Tan. Rape, suicide, death, war, oppression, and racism invade the two novels. In The Color Purple, Celie overcomes racism, violence, and other issues to find dignity and love. In the Joy Luck Club, the daughters struggle for acceptance, love, and happiness. Though the characters endure many hardships they survive not only by not becomingRead More The Power of Love in Amy Tans Joy Luck Club Essay1448 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Power of Love in Amy Tans Joy Luck Club Ã Ã Ã In Amy Tans The Joy Luck Club, Four pairs of mothers and daughters embark on the journey that is life.Ã Each young woman comes to realize how valuable the relationships with their mothers are.Ã As each daughter learns from her mother, she goes through the sometimes-painful process of trying to understand her enigmatic mother.Ã To finally unravel the mystery surrounding their mothers is to understand who they, themselves, really are.Ã Read More The Struggles Faced In The Color Purple And The Joy Luck Club1809 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages The Struggles Faced in The Color Purple and The Joy Luck Club A common bond of struggle links the novels The Color Purple by Alice Walker and The Joy Luck Club by Amy Tan. Rape, suicide, death, war, oppression, and racism invade the two novels. In The Color Purple, Celie overcomes racism, violence, and other issues to find dignity and love. In the Joy Luck Club, the daughters struggle for acceptance, love, and happiness. Though the characters endure many hardships they survive not only by not becomingRead More Relationships Between Mothers and Daughters in Tans The Joy Luck Club1457 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRelationships Between Mothers and Daughters in Tans The Joy Luck Club Ã¢â¬Å"Now the woman was old.Ã And she had a daughter who grew up speaking only English and swallowing more Coca-Cola than sorrow.Ã For a long time now the woman had wanted to give her daughter the single swan feather and tell her, Ã¢â¬Å"This feather may look worthless, but it comes from afar and carries with it all my good intentions.Ã¢â¬ Ã And she waited, year after year, for the day she could tell her daughter this in perfect AmericanRead MoreThe Joy Luck Club Socratic Seminar Questions1104 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJia-yi (Jenny) Cen AP Literature and Composition 23 July 2015 The Joy Luck Club Socratic Seminar Questions The Joy Luck Club, by Amy Tan, exposes the paradoxical relationships between Chinese immigrant mothers and their American-raised daughters. Although both sides experience their own strife in life, the mothers are probably most notable for their struggle in assimilating to society. Given that they are the first generations to have contact with the unfamiliar culture, they must set foot onto the
Friday, May 15, 2020
Who invented the electoral college? The short answer is the founding fathersÃ (aka the framers of the Constitution.) But if credit is to be given to one person, itÃ¢â¬â¢s often attributed to James Wilson of Pennsylvania, who proposed the idea prior to the committee of eleven making the recommendation.Ã However, the framework they put into place for the election of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s president is not only oddly undemocratic, but also opens the door to some quirky scenarios, such as a candidate who wins the presidency without having captured the most votes. So how exactly does the electoral college work? And what was the founderÃ¢â¬â¢s reasoning behind creating it? Electors, Not Voters, Pick Presidents Every four years, American citizens head to the polls to cast their vote for who they want to be President and Vice President of the United States. But theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not voting to elect candidates directly and not every vote counts in the final tally. Instead, the votes go toward choosing electors that are part of a group called the electoral college. The number of electors in each state is proportionate to how many members of congress represent the state. For example, California has 53 representatives in the United States House of Representatives and two senators, so California has 55 electors. In total, there are 538 electors, which include three electors from the District of Columbia. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the electors whose vote will determine the next president. Each state establishes how their respective electors will be chosen. But generally, each party puts up a list of electors that have pledged to support the partyÃ¢â¬â¢s chosen nominees. In some instances, the electors are legally obliged to vote for their partyÃ¢â¬â¢s candidate. The electors are picked by the citizens through a contest called the popular vote. But for practical purposes, voters stepping into the booth shall be given a choice to cast their ballots for one of the party nominees or write in their own candidate. Voters wont know who the electors are and it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter either way. Forty-eight of the states award the entire slate of electors to the winner of the popular vote while the other two, Maine and Nebraska, divvy up their electors more proportionally with the loser potentially still receiving electors. In the final tally, the candidates who receiveÃ the majority of the electors (270) will have been chosen as the next President and Vice President of the United States. In the case in which no candidates receive at least 270 electors, the decision goes to the U.S. House of representatives where a vote is held between the top three presidential candidates who received the most electors.Ã Ã The Pitfalls of a Popular Vote Election Now wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t it simply be easier (not to mention more democratic)Ã to go with a straightforward popular vote? Sure. But the founding fathers were fairly apprehensive about strictly letting the people make such an important decision regarding their government. For one, they saw the potential for a tyranny of the majority, wherein 51 percent of the population elected an official that 49 percent wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t accept. Also keep in mind that at the time of the constitution we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a primarily two-party system the way we do now and so it can easily be assumed that citizens would likely just vote for their favored candidate of their state, hence giving entirely too much leverage to candidates from bigger states. James Madison of Virginia was particularly concerned that holding a popular vote would disadvantage southern states, which were less populated than those in the north.Ã Ã At the convention, there were delegates were so dead set against the dangers of directly electing a president that they proposed having congress vote on it. Some even floated the idea of letting state governors vote to decide which candidates would be in charge of the executive branch. In the end, the electoral college was set up as a compromise between those who disagreed on whether the people or congress should elect the next president. A Far From Perfect Solution The somewhat convoluted nature of the electoral college can make for some tricky situations. The most notable, of course, is the possibility of a candidate losing the popular vote, but winning the election. This happened most recently in the 2016 election, when Donald Trump was elected president over Hillary Clinton, despite being bested by nearly three million votes Ã¢â¬â Clinton won 2.1% more of the popular vote. There are also a host of other very unlikely, yet still possible complications. For example, should the election end in a tie or if none of the candidates were able to garner a majority of electors, the vote gets tossed to congress, where each state gets one vote. The winner would need a majority (26 states) to assume the presidency. But should the race remain deadlocked, the senate selects a vice president to take over as acting president until the deadlock is somehow resolved. Want another one? How about the fact that in some instances electors arenÃ¢â¬â¢t required to vote for state winner and can defy the will of the people, a problem known colloquially as the Ã¢â¬Å"faithless elector.Ã¢â¬ It happened in 2000 when a Washington DC elector didnÃ¢â¬â¢t cast a vote in protest of the districts lack of congressional representation and also in 2004 when an elector from West Virginia pledged ahead of time to not vote for George W. Bush. But perhaps the biggest problem is that while the electoral college is considered by many to be inherently unfair and can thus lead to a number of unsatisfying scenarios, itÃ¢â¬â¢s unlikely that politicians will be able to do away with the system anytime soon. Doing so would most likely require amending the constitution to do away or to alter the twelfth amendment. Of course, there are other ways to get around the flaws, such as one proposal to have in which states can all collectively pass laws to hand all electors to the winner of the popular vote. While its far-fetched, crazier things have happened before.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
On August 26, 1789, the National Assembly introduced the Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen which proclaimed, Ã¢â¬Å"Liberty, property, security, and the right to resist to oppressionÃ¢â¬ . The National Assembly had abolished feudalism and ended serfdom. It also took over church lands to pay off the national debt that France had acquired. This action alarmed many peasants who were devout Catholics. The National Assembly established civil equality among men and made more than half of the male population able to vote. Meanwhile, fear of royal troops started to spread, and many radical groups who wanted great changes started to form. The ancien regime had officially ended, and the National Assembly attempted to create a constitutional monarchy like England. They produced many changes and reform in France, and all was well until King Louis XIV, Marie Antoinette, and their family tried to escape the country for safety. The Flight to Varennes occurred in June, 1791. The royal family was eventually recognized and brought back to Paris. King Louis was now seen as a traitor and put under guarded arrest. The French Revolution brought new hope to other revolutionaries who had been defeated before. Other countries, like England, Germany, and Italy, who wanted change were inspired by the French Revolution. The National Assembly spent two years trying to create a new constitution for France. The new constitution was completed in September, 1791, and it was reluctantlyShow MoreRelatedThe People Of France And The National Assembly1388 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshave endured many hardships as the result of several conflicting ideas being proposed about the National Assembly, our governing body, and its effectiveness in ruling our great nation. The people of France want structure, they want a sound government who will do right by them and will save them from starving with food and order. As our great Nation continues this struggle for power in the National Assembly, more and more rebellions have come to light. Just yesterday it was announced in the townÃ¢â¬â¢s squareRead More National Constituent Assembly Essay1555 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages To what extent did the reforms of the Constituent Assembly create discontent? The National Constituent Assembly solved some of Frances short term problems, but caused significant discontent due to its inability to resolve long term problems, that had been destroying France economically, politically and socially. There were some groups of society that were quite content with the reforms of the Constituent Assembly, such as a majority of the bourgeoisie, peasants who gained from the abolitionRead MoreNational Constituent Assembly1583 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTo what extent did the reforms of the Constituent Assembly create discontent? The National Constituent Assembly solved some of Frances short term problems, but caused significant discontent due to its inability to resolve long term problems, that had been destroying France economically, politically and socially. There were some groups of society that were quite content with the reforms of the Constituent Assembly, such as a majority of the bourgeoisie, peasants who gained from the abolitionRead MoreNational And State Assembly Elections In Nepal1123 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWe have seen nothing like this in Nepal in the past. I am talking about the upcoming national and state assembly elections. These elections might make or break democracy.Ã Ã Ã Ã The make part is easy to figure out. 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Question: Write a report about the purchasing management. Answer: Introduction: The study shows the conceptualization of the various techniques used in purchasing management. The discussions of the report involves the process of selection of the suppliers and relative sourcing of the suppliers such as single, multiple, local and overseas sources. The study further shows the details of the purchasing costs involved in the project and implementation of information and communication technologies (ICT) for the purpose of managing activities related to purchasing operations. The study shows the justification of the order cycle of the customers and supplier selection criteria The organization selected for the purpose of study is Rolls-Royce Limited. The company is known for its elite class of British car models. The company later on started with the manufacturing of aero plane engines. The main operating areas of the company lies in civil defense, power systems and areas related to nuclear resources. Due to presence of wide variety of segments of the company, suppliers need to cope up with the variety of requirements of the company. The supply chain division of Rolls-Royce buys various commodities such as combustion and casings, compressors, turbines, corporate service and facilities management. The supplier of the company is based on the most potential individuals who engage themselves in fair trade policies along with transparent selection of the manufacturing parts. The company also engages in issuing notice to the suppliers regarding fair trade policies related to prevention of counterfeit parts into its products. The marine supply chain of the compan y is based on offshore supply service. Rolls-Royce is known for manufacturing one of a kind engine used in its Olympus and Concorde models. The primal competitor of the company is General Electric which is leading the market due to the cost effectiveness, efficiency and speed in their car models. Some of the other competitors of the company include UTC aerospace, Honeywell and Pratt Whitney. The goals and vision of the company is to provide the most advanced technological solutions in air as well as sea (The Rolls-Royce Story. 2016). Selection criteria of the suppliers According to Chai Ngai (2013), a company selects the suppliers based on the following criteria: Identification Process: This stage involves the preparing the list of potential suppliers. Performance assessment: The next stage followed by identification of the suppliers is based on the comparison of the available suppliers and selection of the potential supplier based on the information gathered. Approving the suppliers: This factor identifies the suppliers which are appropriate to take the orders. The sourcing of the eligible suppliers of the company is based on the nature of commodity which is being ordered as per requirement. Surveillance: The real time surveillance of the activities of the suppliers ensures improvement in the performance level. The rating system top select the suppliers is based on scorecard. An example of vendor scorecard and criteria for selection of the suppliers has been shown below as follows: Scorecard Dimension Explanation Weight A 100% B 75% C 50% D 25% F 0% Vendor Scores Costs/Pricing 30% 18% Terms of payment Vendor ranked based on terms of payment 15% B Pricing of products Comparing the pricing based on alternatives 10% 3.5% Less Than Average Average +/- 1.5% 3.5% More than Average 6% More Than Average 11% More Than Average C Pricing Metric Cost/Pricing 5% D Supply Chain 30% 17% Weighted Average Lead Time Duration from point of acceptance 15% D Response time of email for purchasing Time to respond to the emails 3% A Communication Quality - Purchasing Quality communication through mail 3% Clear Communication Moderate understanding of the responses Response difficult to understand A Flexibility Accommodation of additional business request 3% Ease of handling Special requests Moderate handling of special requests Special request not accepted C Late Orders Late purchase orders 6% 0 1+ A Quality 20% 10% QC Issues Definition of QC Issues Metric 10% A Quality Metric 2 Definition of Quality Metric 2 10% F Product Development 20% 17% PD Metric 1 PD Explanation 1 10% A PD Metric 2 PD Explanation 2 5% B PD Metric 3 PD Explanation 3 5% B Total 100% 62% Supplier Risk and implication on value The high risks are associated with the unique requirements of the products, irregular availability of the same are essential. The technology level of the supplier acts as a bottleneck to the company. The risk of storage of materials is also a matter of concern. According to Heese (2015), based on the variety of products of the company in several departments it will be most appropriate to select multiple sourcing of the suppliers. This form of sourcing is considered to be less risky and assures a continuous flow of the supply of required materials. This particular form of practice will ensure that multiple suppliers are dealt efficiently thereby avoiding the dependence on a single customer. Multiple sourcing also offers greater flexibility in terms of volume ordered for supply. As Rolls-Royce requires the products to be prepared for different segments, this form of sourcing ensures availability of core raw materials for the unique requirements. The new entrants in the supply market are given an opportunity with this particular form of sourcing (Dotoli Falagario 2012). Karljic Model The Kraljic matrix is a useful tool for making purchasing decision based on strategic positioning. The purchasing portfolio based on the Kraljic matrix is shown below as follows: Figure 1 Source: B.V. (2016) Purchasing goals and Internet communication technology The purchasing goals of Rolls-Royce are based on the best industry practice. The purchasing operations are worked together in global teams. The purchasing team ensures that the values are not compromising on the quality aspect. In order to effectively deliver the values, the company spends billions for the service and quality aspect. Rolls-Royce puts an augmented focus on the economic forces abiding the market before placing purchasing orders. The strategies are aimed to focus on a lean supply chain solution with significantly reducing the waste and adaptation of the most advanced technologies to stay cost competitive throughout the supply chain process (Purchasing, 2016). The process of communication at various levels of the purchasing decisions is driven by the Internet communication technology (ICT). The importance of ICT is due to three main factors. The first being it allows the companies to exchange important information with the trading partners in a foster and easier way than the traditional means of media. The second most important aspect of ICT has been seen in the cost-effectiveness of electronically enabled communication techniques such as facts and electronic data interchange. The aforementioned technology also allows the company to customize the availability of information that is relevant to the specific trading partners. This allows the trading partners to obtain the most relevant knowledge on the computer systems (Prajogo Olhager 2012). The Internet communication model to facilitate the purchasing performance has been shown below as follows: Figure 2: Internet Communication Model (Source: Bascand, 2013) According to Wisner Leong (2015), the use of Internet communications technology for the purpose of effective supply-chain management in Rolls-Royce the participants involved in the purchasing decision can effectively communicate about the orders. It is considered as more convenient, cheaper and the trading partners can shared the real-time information without mentioning about specific time, date and type of information shared between them. The use of Internet communications technology in Rolls-Royce important integrated the various supply chain activities through enterprise resource planning, customer relationship manager and supply relationship model (Sharif et al., 2013). As discussed by Prajogo Olhager (2012), the enterprise resource planning refers to the amalgamation of the various departments of the supply chain such as procurement of raw materials, purchasing, planning and vendor sourcing. With ICT the aforementioned activities becomes not only easier to implement but also monitor the same. Hence managing of resources, operations, logistics and customers requires immediate access to data and information that only information technology can offer. Supply-chain of Rolls-Royce needs to meet the challenges of the present and future. Some of the important aspects of supply-chain decisions influence the sustainability, consumer safety, and supply chain security, legal and ethical behaviors. These are not only expected or demanded by consumers and the government worldwide, these are the factors which can only be effectively managed, monitored and realized through effective use of Internet communication technology. Even at the lowest levels of Rolls-Roy ce the individual supply-chain managers are tested for measuring performance, improving supply chain visibility and managing relationships with the vendors are dependent on the information technology. Therefore it is crucial for the company to maintain a healthy relationship with the information technology department of Rolls-Royce for making the supply-chain more responsive globally. The most important aspect of the Internet communication technology is related to the fact that ensures the company to make the fastest purchasing decisions (Fitzsimmons Fitzsimmons 2013). Cost analysis Total cost ownership Cost analysis of the company is done with various cost management tools. Total cost ownership (TCO) is one such concept which can identify the several costs related issues. This allows the company to know about the requirements of the cost involved in the supply chain activities. This approach of costing not only considers the purchasing price but it also includes cost related inbound transportation, follow-up, administrative expenses and expediting. it also takes into consideration cost related to inspection and testing of the raw materials before it arrives for assembling. Several other factors such as downtime, storage, warranty, customer returns and service cost is also estimated in this particular approach. The main objective of the total cost of ownership is not only to compare the prices but it also determines areas to minimize the cost and lowering the cost of each cost element as much as possible (Monczka et al., 2015). According to this model the total cost of ownership is only a part associated procuring a service. The major focus of this approach is to identify those costs, which directly affect the decision-making process in the supply-chain activities. Hence, this particular model is applicable to highlight the cost reduction opportunities and improve the evaluation and selection criteria of the suppliers (Al-Alawi Bradley, 2013). Activity-based costing This particular costing system is most appropriate for meeting the costing requirements of the diversified segments existing in Rolls-Royce. The traditional approach of cost accounting ideally considers only the direct costs, which are associated to the actual expenditures. Activity-based costing method identifies the cost drivers for the various indirect costs and tries to translate them into direct costs. The main challenge of this approach lies in identification of the various indirect costs and putting them into cost activity pool of the cost drivers. The manufacturing costs of the company are segregated costs, which respond to the changes in unit level activities i.e. changes based on the quantity produced. It also comprises of the batch level activities which are directly related to total number of batches of the units produced. Lastly the manufacturing overhead takes into account the product level activities, which proved to be beneficial for all the units of the equipments (S chulze Ewering, 2012). The models of activity-based costing based on the transformation process of the various indirect costs are shown below as follows: Figure 3: Activity Based Costing (Source: Activity Based Costing Knowledge Beyond, 2016) Activity-based costing can be beneficial for facilitating a better marketing mix, accurate prediction of costs, tracks the requirement based on the changes in quantity produced, changes in cost due to organizational structure and identifying the cost activities of the different work processes. This particular method of costing is often useful to know the reason behind poor financial performance of an organization (Mansor et al. 2012). Conclusion The purchasing activity discussed in this report has a critical role for achieving a sustainable future for Rolls-Royce limited. The ease of procurement and selection of suppliers will ensure that the organization is able to achieve the best manufacturing process in the car making industry. Due to the variety in the services and strategic considerations multiple sourcing is best suited to meet the procurement goals. From the various findings of this can be stated that the sourcing criteria of the company gives a major focus on the quality of the parts used in its manufacturing process. Internet communication and technology can further enhance the decision-making process the purchasing operations. The advent of advanced technologies such as RFID tags and GPS tracking system ensures a real-time communication with the suppliers and electronically monitor the enterprise resources. The cost analysis section of the report considers two major costing tools. The total cost of ownership appro ach is not only useful track the opportunities for cost reduction but also aids the selection criteria of the suppliers. The activity-based costing ensures the appropriate translation of the indirect expenses of the various supply chain costs thereby providing a fair cost analysis. Reference list Activity Based Costing | Knowledge Beyond. (2016). Knowledge Beyond. Retrieved 11 June 2016, Al-Alawi, B. M., Bradley, T. H. (2013). Total cost of ownership, payback, and consumer preference modeling of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Applied Energy, 103, 488-506. Bascand, G. (2013). Household use of information and communication technology: 2012. B.V. (2016). Kraljic Model - Knowledge Center. 12manage.com. Retrieved 11 June 2016, Chai, J., Liu, J. N., Ngai, E. W. (2013). Application of decision-making techniques in supplier selection: A systematic review of literature. Expert Systems with Applications, 40(10), 3872-3885. Dotoli, M., Falagario, M. (2012). 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